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【预告】2016世界风景园林师高峰讲坛——风景园林的价值与保护

时间:2016-05-23 阅读:

2016世界风景园林师高峰讲坛

风景园林的价值与保护

Landscape Value and Preservation

2016528-529

中国·北京

 

  人类的发展历史中,风景园林承载着人类的生活,记录着人与自然相互影响的痕迹,为人类提供享受美和愉快以及自然与文化多样性的机会,同时也是生物多样性的最后储藏所。反思和探讨风景园林的价值,始终是每个积极探索的风景园林师不可避免的话题。

  今天的风景园林正在发生着前所未有的变化,面临着一系列的问题和挑战。风景园林的多样性和多变性,以及人们对于风景园林价值认识的不足和偏差,往往导致了风景园林可持续发展的困境。在发掘、探讨和继承风景园林价值的同时,风景园林师们也致力于探索风景园林保护和管理的理论与方法,保护和抢救有价值的风景园林。

  北京林业大学园林学院将于528-29日,举办2016世界风景园林师高峰讲坛,邀请国内外学者专家共同探讨这一议题。在不同的价值观和视角的碰撞之间,我们希望能重新认识风景园林所具有的价值,解决在风景园林保护实践中所面临的困惑,进一步促进风景园林行业的发展。

 

讲坛主题

风景园林的价值与保护

Landscape Value and Preservation

 

讲坛时间

2016528日–29

 

讲坛地点

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

 

组织机构

主办单位:

北京林业大学

中国风景园林学会教育工作委员会

承办单位

北京林业大学国际交流合作处

北京林业大学园林学院

《风景园林》杂志社

 

参加形式

活动面向全国的行业工作者免费公开

 

讲坛语言

中文/英文

 

讲坛议程

2016528日(周六)

时间

内容

主持人

地点

08:55-09:00

合影

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

李雄

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

09:00-09:15

开幕致辞

中国风景园林学会领导;北京林业大学领导

09:15-09:45

主题演讲1

约翰·威廉姆斯

09:45-10:15

主题演讲2

苏雪痕

10:15-10:45

主题演讲3

约翰内斯·穆勒

10:45-10:55

茶歇

贵宾室

10:55-11:25

主题演讲4

杜春兰

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

 

11:25-11:55

主题演讲5

罗伯特·梅尼克

11:55-12:25

圆桌讨论

12:3013:30 午餐和休息

13:30-14:00

主题演讲6

斯塔芬·乃豪斯

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

杜春兰

 

 

 

 

 

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

 

14:00-14:30

主题演讲7

林箐

14:30-15:00

主题演讲8

杰克·艾亨

15:00-15:30

主题演讲9

马劲武

15:30-15:40

茶歇

贵宾室

15:40-16:10

主题演讲10

海蒂·霍曼

 

 

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

 

16:10-16:40

主题演讲11

韩锋

16:40-17:20

主题演讲12

安娜·约根森

17:20-17:50

圆桌讨论

 

2016529日(周日)

时间

内容

主持人

地点

09:00-09:30

主题演讲13

蒂莫西·凯勒

王向荣

 

 

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

 

09:30-10:00

主题演讲14

但文红

10:00-10:30

主题演讲15

伊森·卡尔

10:30-10:40

茶歇

贵宾室

10:40-11:10

主题演讲16

刘晖

 

 

北京林业大学学研中心B1报告厅

 

11:10-11:40

主题演讲17

索尼娅·丁佩尔曼

11:40-12:10

圆桌讨论

12:10-12:20

闭幕仪式:李雄教授总结发言

青年风景园林师圆桌讨论––暨第四届京津高校建筑、规划、风景园林联合论坛

14:00-14:10

李雄教授致辞

 

张晋石

 

 

 

 

北京林业大学学研中心A13垂花门

14:10-16:10

圆桌讨论一

邀请嘉宾:北林、同济、南农、东南、北工大、北建大、华中农

16:10-16:20

茶歇

16:20-18:10

圆桌讨论二

邀请嘉宾:北林、北大、华南农、清华、南林、天大

郭巍

18:10-18:20

郑曦副教授总结发言

 

发言嘉宾及演讲信息

1国外嘉宾:

01. John G. Williams

 

(美)约翰威廉姆斯 John G. Williams

美国奥本大学风景园林系荣誉教授,曾任该校建筑、设计与工程学院院长。研究侧重于小镇城市形态,对阿巴拉契亚山区小镇的研究被景观研究基金会授予2008年杰克逊书籍奖,对美国小镇城市病理的研究被景观研究基金会授予2010年大卫·科芬研究津贴。主持完成众多获奖项目,如韩城1988年夏季奥运会运动员及记者村荣获波士顿建筑师协会的杰出建筑奖。

Lecture title:Bitter Melon

演讲题目:苦甜瓜

Abstract: This presentation narrates the Chinese experience in California’s Delta in the Central Valley. The Central Valley is one of the world’s most productive agricultural regions providing a third of the row crops consumed in the United States. The confluence of two rivers, the Sacramento and the San Joaquim, forms the mysterious Delta, an alluvial region under severe environmental stress. After completing the construction of the continental railroad in the late 19th century, many Chinese immigrants settled as farmers in the Delta. Much of their agricultural efforts required manipulation of century-old drainage patterns and the creation of extensive earthworks. The Delta is an ecology of watery landscapes in constant danger of catastrophic flooding. The Chinese built beautiful communities of unique urban forms that perfectly combined their needs for ethnic solidarity and protection from racial bias. All but one of these towns have disappeared. Tiny Locke, California, remains as testimony to the cultural resiliency of the Chinese community and the persistence of beautiful vernacular design. After first exploring the fragile ecology of the Central Valley and the Delta, and using old maps and photographs, this talk traces the reasons for these towns’ placements. Through cultural detective work - what I call urban pathology — the investigation of detrimental changes in urban structure and form — I reconstruct the Chinese neighborhoods in places like Isleton, Courtland and Walnut Grove.  This investigation also exposes the forces of modernism, especially the interstate highway system, that have left these towns behind while creating their own contemporary urban forms.

摘要:本讲座叙述中国人在加州中央山谷的三角洲地区的经历。中央山谷是世界上最丰产的农业区之一,美国所消耗的行栽作物中有三分之一来自该地。萨克拉门托河与圣华金河在此交互形成神秘的三角洲,这一洪泛区正面临严重的环境压力。在十九世纪末太平洋大铁路建成之后,不少华人移民在三角洲地区定居务农。他们的农务主要涉及古老排水系统的操作和大面积的土方工程。三角洲地区是一个持续处于洪灾危险中的多水景观。华人建造了独特而优美的聚落,这些聚落的城镇形态将建造者对实现民族团结和抵御种族歧视的需求完美结合。这些城镇中只有一座存留至今,即加州的小洛克镇,它见证了华人社群的文化弹性和优美乡土设计的延续。本讲座将理清该镇空间特征的成因,方法是首先研究中央山谷和三角洲地区的脆弱生态,然后利用老地图和旧照片。通过文化调查(我将其称之为城市病理学,即对城市结构形式的有害变化的调研),我将重构艾尔顿、Courtland和沃尔纳特格罗夫等地的华人社区。该研究也将揭示现代主义的力量,特别是州际公路系统,是如何导致这些华人城镇的废弃并创造新的当代城市形态。

 

02.Johannes Müller

 

(德)约翰内斯·穆勒 Johannes Müller

在维尔茨堡大学Hull/GB Caen/F学习地理学、地质学和植物学,专长于景观生态与景观发展问题。自1988年以来,现为自由摄影师、作家、景观规划与生态方面的咨询顾问,维尔茨堡大学的地理学教学部的研究员。

Lecture title:(Re-) Shaping the Landscape - the Legacy of Human Interference with the Landscape in China

演讲题目:(重新)塑造景观––中国的人类干预景观遗产

Abstract: The landscape as a whole represents a section of the earth, including all influences and interdependencies leading to its characteristic shape. In other words, the landscape can be regarded as an ecosystem. The natural landscape is altered to such an extent by the interference of man (in this case farmers and agriculture) that it is defined as cultural landscape. Its ecosystem includes man as a major eco-factor thus becoming an agroecosystem.The cultural landscape as we see it today, especially in the case of China, is the outcome of a history of 9000 or more years of interdependencies between nature and man, step by step changing, influencing or adapting to certain eco-factors. The resulting cultural landscape therefore reflects the long history of a mutual relationship between man and nature. As farming is not possible without settlements, characterizing the cultural landscape includes land use systems as well as villages and buildings.On top of that, on a long term stable cultural landscapes, being the result of sustainable land use systems, represent an intrinsic aesthetical value. The transformation of a natural into a cultural landscape by human activity should not be seen as the destruction of nature or the natural landscape, but should be understood as (re-) shaping of the landscape.Possible developments of the cultural landscape in the 21st century include either the intensification of land use or its complete abandonment depending on the suitability for agriculture. It’s the task of landscape architecture to develop concepts on a scale between those two extremes including the historical and the aesthetical values of the cultural landscape.

摘要:景观作为一个整体,包括其导向地球特征形态的所有影响和相互依赖性,代表了地球的一部分。换句话说,景观可以视为一个生态系统。自然景观在人的干预(通常是农民与农业)下达到了可以被定义为文化景观的程度。人在这个生态系统中作为主要的生态因素,造就了农业生态景观。今天我们所见到的文化景观,尤其是在中国,是经过9000年甚至更长的时间里,在自然与人的相互影响中,一步步改变、影响或适应了某些生态要素。因此,造成的文化景观反映了人与自然在悠久历史中的相互关系。农耕不可能不包含定居点,因此除了土地利用系统,定义的文化景观还应包括乡村和建筑。最重要的是,一个长期稳定的文化景观作为可持续的土地利用系统的结果,代表了一种内在的审美价值。经由人类活动导致的自然景观到文化景观的转变,不应该被认为对是自然或自然景观的破坏,而应该理解为对景观的塑造(重塑)。文化景观在21世纪的发展可能性包括了对土地使用的强化,抑或是完全的放弃,这取决于农业的可持续性。而风景园林的任务,是在包括文化景观的历史和审美价值在内的这两个极端之间发展观念。

 

03.Robert Z. Melnick, FASLA

 

(美)罗伯特梅尼克 Robert Z. Melnick, FASLA

美国俄勒冈大学风景园林系教授,曾任该系系主任,及该校建筑与应用艺术学院院长;美国风景园林师协会终身荣誉会员。出版了大量文化景观相关著述,在夏威夷、加利福尼亚、俄勒冈、爱德华、德克萨斯、肯塔基、宾夕法尼亚和新泽西等州主持多个项目,教授景观保护和国家公园历史理论等课程,2005-2007年在盖蒂中心任高级课题执行官。

Lecture title:Protecting cultural landscapes in the era of climate change

演讲题目:在气候变化时代保护文化景观

Abstract: Climate change, whether or not caused by human activities, is already having a direct impact on valued cultural landscapes globally. We are witnessing modifications to cultural landscapes that threaten their historic condition and possibly their very existence. While cultural landscape scholars and practitioners cannot deter or alter climate change, we can explore methods and tools to ameliorate its impact on valued landscapes. This lecture reports on current research in US national parks with special attention to the evolving tools employed to integrate climate science knowledge with cultural landscape analysis and management. The goal is to understand the impact of climate change on cultural landscapes and identify the landscapes’ vulnerability to key climate variables. Potential intervention activities to increase probability of the landscapes’ stabilization are also discussed. Main points of focus include: prioritizing character-defining cultural landscape features; identifying climate variables and historic impacts on cultural landscapes; and understanding a landscape’s climate exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity and vulnerability in order to better plan for its resilience and future. The six cultural landscapes in western US national parks were selected based on their ecological and cultural diversity. The parks are: Redwood National Park (California), Death Valley National Park (California), Pu’ukoholaHeiau National Historic Site (Hawai’i), North Cascades National Park (Washington), Eugene O’Neill National Historic Site (California) and Nez Perce National Historical Park (Idaho). 

摘要:不管是否是因人类活动引起的,气候变化已经直接影响到了全球范围内宝贵的文化遗产。我们正在见证文化景观的改变,而这种改变对其历史状况甚或是存续造成威胁。虽然文化景观学者和从业者无法阻止或改变气候变化,我们可以探索如何减轻其对于宝贵景观之影响的方法和工具。本讲座介绍美国国家公园的现有研究状况,特别关注那些将环境科学知识与文化景观分析管理相互融合的新工具,目的是了解气候变化对文化景观的影响,识别景观受主要气候变量影响的可能性。那些可能增加景观稳定性的潜在干预活动也将得到讨论。重点内容包括:确定文化景观特征的优先顺序;识别气候变量及历史因素对文化景观的影响;理解景观之气候接触度、敏感度、适应能力和脆弱性以更好规划其弹性和未来。本讲座选择美国西部国家公园中的六个文化景观作为案例,它们的生态和文化具有多样性。这些景观包括:加州红木国家公园、加州死谷国家公园、夏威夷Pu’ukoholaHeiau国家历史遗址、华盛顿州北瀑布国家公园、加州Eugene O’Neill国家历史遗址、爱德华州Nez Perce国家历史公园。

 

04.SteffenNijhuis

 

(荷)斯塔芬·乃豪斯  Steffen Nijhuis

荷兰代尔夫特理工大学建筑和建成环境学院的助理教授,也是风景园林研究项目负责人。他在风景园林研究、圩田设计、三角洲景观、基于景观的区域设计和GIS在风景园林规划设计领域应用方面是专家。

Lecture title: Polderscapes. The Landscape Architecture Of The Dutch Lowlands

演讲题目:圩田景观:荷兰低地的风景园林

Abstract:The Dutch lowlands consist mainly of polders, areas where water levels are artificially controlled so people can live and work there. This century-old interaction between man and water has produced a rich polder landscape. The great variety in polder forms is caused by differences in the geological subsoil, the dynamics of water and land and human intervention. This research systematically explores and visualises the wealth in shapes of the Dutch polder landscape from a landscape architecture perspective. Polders are not just regarded as hydraulic phenomena but also as spatial constructions and cultural expressions: the polder landscape as we can see and experience it, and also as an expression of Dutch culture. Through exploring the morphology of the polder landscape the genius loci of the Dutch lowlands can be ‘read’ in order to retrieve the information and design knowledge that lies hidden within it, as clues for further development. In this research the landscape architectonic form of the polder landscape is analysed in two stages revealing its cohesion and variety through systematic analysis and cartography. First, all polders are surveyed and digitized resulting in the first systematic polder map of the Netherlands. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) not only ensured precision work, but also made it possible to link information to the map, turning it into a spatial database. Second, the polder as the elementary landscape unit of the lowlands is further explored. In a morphological analysis of selected examples the characteristics of the different polder types (lake-bed polders, river polders, tidal flat polders and peat polders) are enumerated and interpreted typologically. An analysis of this sort makes the polder landscape, which until now has been discussed only in physical and historical-geographical terms, accessible for spatial design disciplines while providing clues for preservation and transformation.

摘要:荷兰低地主要由圩田组成,圩田内水位人工控制使人们可以在那里生活和工作。人与水之间的相互作用产生了丰富的圩田景观。圩田丰富的多样性源于土壤的差异、水和土地的动态性和人类的干预。本研究从风景园林的角度系统探索荷兰圩田景观在形式方面的财富并加以可视化。圩田不仅作为水力现象也为空间结构和文化表达:圩田景观可以被看到和被体验,并成为荷兰文化的表达。通过对圩田景观形态的探寻,荷兰低地的场所精神可以被解读出来以便获取隐藏其中的信息和设计知识,并作为进一步发展的线索。在这个研究中,圩田的形式通过系统分析和制图分两步揭示关联性和多样性。首先,调查所有的圩田并数字化,形成了荷兰第一份系统的圩区图集。GIS的使用不仅保证了工作的精确性,而且它能够把信息链接到地图上,把它变成一个空间数据库。第二,圩区作为低地的基本景观单元,进一步加以探讨。对选定的例子进行形态分析,不同圩田类型(湖床圩田,河圩区,滩涂圩田和泥炭圩田)的特征得以列举和类型化的解释。这种分析使空间设计学科触及到目前为止一直只在历史地理方面讨论的圩田景观,并对其保护与改造提供了线索。

 

05.Jack Ahern

 

(美)杰克•艾亨Jack Ahern

美国风景园林学会理事,美国风景园林教育委员会理事,美国麻省大学阿默赫斯特分校(Umass Amherst)国际部副主任,风景园林与区域规划系教授。主要研究方向为景观生态理论应用,景观规划与设计项目的原则和方法。此前致力于大规模土地保护综合系统(即绿道)的研究,探索其空间结构和资源基础与生态服务系统和人类利用之间的联系。

Lecture title:Novel Urban Ecosystems:  origins, evolution and management of “new nature” in cities 

演讲题目:新城市生态系统:城市中“新自然”的起源、演变和管理

Abstract: As the world has become predominantly urban early in this “Century of the City” the proportion of “natural” and built environments in cities has shifted, and entirely new, or novel types of urban nature have appeared through spontaneous urban ecological evolution and by intentional human creation.  This novel nature in 21st Century cities challenges traditional and established conceptions of urban landscape and urban nature, including aesthetic appearance, cultural identity, and ecological performance.

The result of novel ecosystem evolution and ecological development is redefining the identity, character, and heritage of contemporary cities.  A new definition and typology of 21st century “novel” urban nature is proposed here as the basis for a novel urban ecosystem strategy - to provide essential ecosystem services and to contribute to a new and evolving urban identity.  This proposed “novel urban ecosystem” strategy is informed by landscape and urban ecology. Novel urban nature is increasingly the subject of “designed experiments” that: 1) monitor the performance of innovative novel ecosystem designs to provide multiple ecosystem services: 2) to develop new modes of aesthetic expression in urban landscapes and 3) build public understanding and support for new types of novel urban ecosystems.  The main proposition presented here is that novel urban ecosystems will become increasingly important to support urban sustainability and urban resilience. 

摘要:在这个“城市的纪元”的早期,世界以城市环境为主,“自然”与人工环境的比例已经发生了倒转,全新的(或者说是新奇的)城市自然类型已经通过城市自然的生态演变和人类有目的的创造而出现了。在21世纪的城市中,这种新自然挑战着传统既有的城市景观概念和城市自然,包括美学外观、文化认同和生态效益方面。新的生态系统演变和生态发展的结果,就是重新定义了现代城市的身份、个性和延续性。21世纪“新”自然的定义和分类在本次演讲中,作为新城市生态系统策略的基础被提出来,以提供重要的生态系统服务,有益于新的、不断演变的城市特征的形成。此处提及的“新城市生态系统”策略源于景观和城市生态。“新城市自然愈发成为“设计的实验”的主题:1)检测创新的新生态系统设计的效益,以提供多种生态系统服务;2)在城市景观中,发展美学表达的新模式;3)得到公众对新城市生态系统所带来的新变化的理解和支持。本演讲的核心是,新城市生态系统在支持城市的可持续和弹性发展方面将会变得愈发重要。

 

06.Jinwu Ma

 

(美)马劲武

美国环境系统研究院高级产品工程师。建筑学学士、园林规划设计和地理学硕士。自1997年以来为美国环境系统研究院软件产品工程师。业务专长为地理设计。

Lecture title:Landscape Values and Preservation in Geographical Context

演讲题目:景观价值与保护的地理文脉

Abstract:
This paper attempts to present valued landscapes, both natural and cultural, on geographical backdrops starting with the six ancient civilizations and moving onto landscapes of great values in China.  It analyzes different levels of representing valued landscapes, with a presentation on how to appropriately showcase any landscape of value based on various needs.  Spatial recognition and perception are stressed in relating them geographically, especially with contemporary landscapes.  Landscape preservation needs are analyzed with consideration of several stress factors such as population, industrial and agricultural activities, and human consumption needs.  Landscape preservation policies should then be assessed based on these stress factors.
Keywords: landscape value presentation methods, spatial connection of valued landscapes, and landscape stress factors
摘要:
此论文试图针对自然与文化高价值景观进行偏向于地理手段的分析。文章先列举古代世界六大文明发祥地,然后聚焦在中国的名胜景观。文章采用依多种景观价值的不通过表现分类,总结依据不同需要来进行不同景观表达的方法,试图找出最为合适的景观价值展现手段。各种不同景观之地理关联需要强调其地理空间上的认识和理解,特别是对近现代景观尤为如此。景观保护亦先需要对不用应激因素进行分析,如人口、工农业发展、人类消费需求等。因此景观保护政策亦应依据这些应激因素而进行有的放矢的调控。

 

07.HeidiHohmann

 

(美)海蒂霍曼 Heidi Hohmann

美国爱荷华州立大学风景园林系副教授。专长:研究涉及历史景观保护、1900-1935年间的风景园林历史、19世纪末20世纪初的公园系统、乡村公墓、当代设计批判等,目前正对明尼苏达公园系统、Brucemore历史景观、Chickasaw国家游憩地等文化景观进行调查和评估。

Lecture title: Transportation Transformations: Preserving Linear Cultural Landscapes

演讲题目:交通变迁:保护线性文化景观

Abstract: The literature of cultural landscapes contains abundant odological studies, from J.B. Jackson’s poetic descriptions of traveling the open road on motorcycles to Grady Clay’s iconic analysis of the American “strip.” Beyond documentation and analysis, however, the actual preservation of transportation corridors poses numerous challenges, most of which stem from their long and narrow character: Although preservation of a road’s structures (roadbed, curbs and culverts) may be straightforward due to their relative simplicity and the road’s jurisdiction under a single agency, preservation of the corridor context--Lynch and Appleyard’s so-called “View from the Road”--is usually more difficult, due to its vast expanse and myriad owners and stakeholders. Furthermore, situated in larger social and environmental networks of communication and transportation, roads are rarely static landscapes. As routes and transportation technology change over time, so the corridors, fundamentally altering their use, experience and character. Given such changes, what, then, defines authenticity in a historic roadway, and how can preservation be accomplished--or justified--over the long distances of transportation corridors? A series of case studies from the United States will explicate these preservation challenges across a variety of scales, from local (30 miles) to regional (500 miles) to national (1,000 miles), addressing issues of corridor documentation, feature treatment, and adjacent lands management. Discussion of a variety of linear landscapes, including parkways, scenic byways, and highways will focus on conservation approaches that permit ongoing transformation and evolution of these resources.

摘要:文化景观文献中包含大量对道路的研究,如杰克逊对驾驶摩托车在乡间道路上旅行的诗意描述,以及克雷对美国商业街的符号化分析。除了记录和分析,交通廊道的具体保护工作还面临诸多挑战,这些挑战大多源于此类景观的狭长特征:对一条道路的构筑物(如路基、道牙和涵洞)进行保护也许是直接明了的,因为其相对简单且置于一个政府机构治下,但要保护这条路的文脉(被林奇和阿普尔亚德称之为从路上看到的风景)往往是困难的,因为其涉及很大范围和诸多业主和利益相关者。而且,道路景观根植于更大范围通讯交通的社会环境网络中,很少处于静态。随着路线和交通技术的变化,道路的使用方式、体验和特征也在发生变化。考虑到这些变化,我们应通过什么来界定一条历史公路的原真性,而又应如何实现长距离交通廊道的保护?本讲座选择一系列美国案例来阐述这些保护工作的挑战,尺度涉及地方(30英里)、地区(100英里)和全国(1000英里),问题涉及廊道记录、特征处理和邻近土地经营。对林荫大道、风景小道和高速公路等各类线性景观的探讨将侧重那些能够兼容变化的保护策略。

 

08.Anna Jorgensen

 

(英)安娜•约根森 Anna Jorgensen

英国谢菲尔德大学高级讲师。研究兴趣着眼于人们体验景观、与景观交互作用、理解和表现景观的不同途径,尤其是在野生或自然的植被条件下。期望探索出更为历史性的和环境友好的方法规划设计城市绿色空间和绿地结构。旨在挑战会被公众接纳的专业思想,并试图建立源于其研究领域不同学科的理论框架(比如环境心理学、社会人类学、文化地理学)。

Lecture title: Rethinking cultural heritage in urban landscapes

演讲题目:城市景观中文化遗产的再思考

Abstract: According to the European Landscape Convention landscape ‘contributes to the formation of local cultures’ and ‘is an important part of the quality of life for people everywhere… in degraded areas as well as in areas of high quality’, but the cultural significance of degraded areas is rarely acknowledged in planning policy or practice, and under-researched in academic scholarship. This paper will question established heritage paradigms relating to designated landscapes and ancient monuments in urban areas, and explore wider understanding of heritage and the implications for urban landscape planning and design. The talk will focus particularly on the heritage of post-industrial and everyday environments, including a wide range of derelict, underused and neglected landscapes, and will explore the nature of ‘cultural landscapes’ in urban areas. It will also examine the relationship between historical narrative and representation, and the outcomes for heritage practice and local identity, and alternative ways of ‘doing’ landscape heritage.

摘要:根据《欧洲景观公约》,景观有利于当地文化的形成,并且是基本生活条件的重要组成部分,它无处不在.....不管是在退化地区还是高品质地区。但是在退化地区,文化的重要性在规划政策或实践中很少被认可,并且学术上研究不足。本文对城市中特定景观和古迹文物相关的既定遗产范式提出质疑,探索更为广泛地理解遗产及其对城市景观规划设计的影响。探讨主要针对后工业时代遗产和日常环境,包括各种废弃、未充分利用和疏于管理的景观,探索城市中文化景观的本质。也研究了历史陈述与再现之间的关系、遗产项目和地方特征的出路,以及处理景观遗产可供选择的方法。

 

09.J. Timothy Keller, FASLA

 

(美)蒂莫西凯勒 J. Timothy Keller, FASLA

美国爱荷华州立大学风景园林系荣誉教授,曾任该系系主任;美国风景园林师协会终身荣誉会员。蒂姆在历史景观、特色文化社区和交通廊道方面的著述和实践项目屡获大奖,其成就是公认的。作为“土地与社区”公司创始人和爱荷华州立大学设计学院风景园林系荣誉教授,蒂姆主持了全美各地多种创造性景观规划和保护项目,并曾充当斯洛文尼亚、马来西亚和韩国等地项目的顾问。作为美国景观设计师协会会士和“历史景观保护”联盟前主席,蒂姆被哈佛大学设计学院授予“勒布会士”称号。目前,他正担任弗吉尼亚州州阿尔伯马尔县规划委员会的主席,研究财政对景观保护的影响,以及相关土地利用问题和政策对于农业和乡村社区的影响。

Lecture title:CulturalLandscapesintheRural/UrbanContinuum

演讲题目:城乡共同体中的文化景观

Abstract: Cultural landscapes throughout the world are confronting change so dramatic that their underlying human and environmental values and thus their continued existence are threatened. Many landscapes associated with distinct cultural groups have either disappeared or are becoming heritage parks as governmental bodies endeavor to protect once dynamic landscapes that pay homage to past cultures. Other cultural landscapes continue to exist by addressing the challenges of a rapidly changing world. These evolving cultural landscapes, inhabited by the descendants of culture(s) that gave built form to the underlying geomorphology of a place as well as new populations that are mindful of history and cultural traditions, may remain viable and clearly evident through planned and managed modifications of environment and economy. Often these cultural landscapes are adjacent to urban centers or transportation corridors and are experiencing significant transformation related to suburban and exurban development. However, with a growing societal focus on both renewing and densifying inner cities and strengthening adjacent agrarian-­based economies, local governments are developing planning and policy approaches that support both the urban and the rural in mutually advantageous, symbiotic relationships. This is often accomplished through long term and continuing governmental agreements that support the inherent strengths of each entity. The City of Charlottesville and the County of Albemarle, Virginia exemplify this cross-­jurisdictional effort. In 2016 more than 95% of Albemarle County remains rural and its cultural landscape is viewed as a viable component of the regional rural/urban continuum. These two jurisdictions — that encompass a UNESCO World Heritage Site composed of Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello and the University of Virginia historic precinct, thousands of hectares of listed historic districts, tens of thousands of hectares of protected agricultural and forested lands and a portion of Shenandoah National Park — have worked individually, together, and with the support of NGOs for more than 75 years to achieve this result. An examination of the Charlottesville/Albemarle planning and policy history provides direction in maintaining and protecting other significant rural cultural landscapes in the midst of growth and change.

摘要:世界范围内的文化景观正在经历急剧变化,以至于其基本的人文和环境价值乃至存续都受到了威胁。许多与特定文化族群关系密切的景观已经消失,或者正在成为遗产公园,此类公园源于政府试图保护那些仍延续着传统文化的有活力的景观的努力。其他文化景观通过解决快速变化的世界的挑战而继续存在。这些演化中的文化景观也许能通过对环境和经济进行有规划的和谨慎的调整来得以维持,这种调整可由那些曾经赋予了景观以基本形貌的文化体的后裔来进行,也可由那些关注历史文化传统的新人来进行。这些文化景观常邻近都市区或交通廊道,因而因郊区开发而剧烈变化。然而,随着社会对旧城更新及城郊农业经济复兴的关注,地方政府正在制定规划和政策来促进城乡互利共生关系的形成。政府在支持城市和乡村各自内在优势方面达成长期而持续的共识是实现这一目标的途径。弗吉尼亚州的夏洛茨维尔市和阿尔伯马尔县是这种跨行政区划努力的一个典型案例。2016年阿尔伯马尔县超过95%的土地仍是乡村,其文化景观被看做是区域性城乡共同体的一个可以存续的组成部分。在过去的75年时间里,两个行政单位在非营利组织协助下已经通过各自努力及协同合作实现了这一结果,涉及一个世界文化遗产地(由杰斐逊的蒙蒂塞洛庄园和弗吉尼亚大学历史区组成)、数千公顷被入选国家历史遗址目录的历史街区、上万公顷农业及森林保护地、谢纳多阿国家公园的一部分。通过研究夏洛茨维尔市和阿尔伯马尔县的规划和政策历史,可为维持和保护其他出于变化中的重要乡村文化景观提供指引。

 

10.EthanCarr

 

(美)伊森·卡尔Ethan Carr

美国麻省大学阿默赫斯特分校(Umass Amherst)风景园林与区域规划系教授。风景园林历史学家,研究方向为公共景观。曾任教于哈佛研究生院、弗吉尼亚大学,现作为风景园林学教授任教于麻省大学。两本获奖著作:《荒野的设计》(1998)和《任务66:现代主义和国家公园的困境》(2007)。曾任弗雷德里克·劳·奥姆斯特德论文集《早期波士顿年:1882-1890》(2013)的第八卷编辑,以及关于世界公园设计历史的书籍《公共自然》(2013)的主编。目前负责麻省大学文化景观的管理认证项目,同时是风景园林专业研究生教育负责人。

Lecture title:Landscape Values and Preservation: A “Landscape Turn” in Preservation Practice

演讲题目:景观的价值和保护:保护实践中的景观转变”

Abstract: Beginning in the 1980s, the US National Park Service began documenting historic properties as “cultural landscapes,” and listing these historic properties in its National Register of Historic Places. Since 1992, UNESCO has inscribed eighty-eight properties in the World Heritage List in the category of cultural landscapes. The IUCN, which traditionally had been concerned with the designation and preservation of wilderness and natural areas, elaborated its protected area management categories to include Category V: Protected Landscape/Seascapes, which are cultural, or “living,” landscapes. All these designations acknowledge the significance of maintaining and enhancing the human interactions with the land that embody and define culturally significant agricultural, associative, and historic designed landscapes.

This world trend in historic preservation and natural resource conservation over the last thirty years indicate a broad shift in world landscape preservation practice and the values that are expressed through that practice. Cultural historians describe a “cultural turn” in the humanities and social sciences that began in the 1970s and reflected an increased awareness of the importance of culture and cultural processes in social constructions of significance and meaning, and a shift away from positivist, or empirical, epistemology in the disciplines of, for example, anthropology, history, and economics. In this paper I discuss the “landscape turn” in landscape preservation and heritage management as an outgrowth of the larger cultural turn of the twentieth century.

Examples of this “landscape turn” in professional practice in the US include: Indigenous Cultural Landscape designations; “place-based” regional planning and urban design; civic (or public) engagement in landscape architecture; the spatialization of data in the “digital humanities”; and “New Paradigms” in ecological and cultural resource management. Together these practices indicate the extent of an interdisciplinary landscape turn that characterizes landscape preservation efforts today, and reveals the inherent landscape values expressed through them.

摘要:美国国家公园管理局于二十世纪80年代开始将历史遗产整理记录为文化景观,并将其列入国家史迹名录。1992年以来,国际教科文组织将88个历史遗产列入了世界遗产名录。世界自然保护联盟作为一直以来致力于指定和保护野生自然环境的组织,将其保护区的管理类别增加了一类,即第五类:受保护的景观/海景,具有文化特征的“活”景观。这些新的分类表明维护和加强人类干预后的土地(景观特征)的重要性,体现和界定了具有重要文化价值的农业、以及相关的历史景观。过去三十年间,在世界景观保护实践和通过实践展现出来的价值方面,历史保护和自然资源保护的世界潮流出现了巨大的转变。人文历史学家如此描述始于20世纪70年代的人类和社会科学文化转变:它显示出了对于文化和在社会结构象征性和含义方面的文化进程的意识的不断增强,是对实证主义或者经验主义的摒弃,从认识论在诸如人类学、历史学和经济学等学科的条条框框中发生转变。本演讲讨论了在20世纪文化转变大背景下的景观保护和遗产管理中的“景观转变”。在美国,在专业实践中“景观转变”的案例包括:土著文化景观指定;“地方化”区域规划和城市设计;风景园林中的公民(或公共)参与;“数字人文”的空间化数据;生态和文化资源管理中的“新范式”。这些实践表明,今天的跨学科背景下景观转变阐明了景观的特征,揭示了景观原有的价值。

 

11.SonjaDümpelmann

 

(美)索尼娅·丁佩尔曼 Sonja Dümpelmann

索尼娅·丁佩尔曼(Sonja Dümpelmann)是一位景观历史学者,目前在哈佛大学设计研究生院担任风景园林学副教授。她在柏林艺术大学获得风景园林学博士学位。已出版的著作包括《飞行的想像:航空、景观、设计》,《意大利风景园林师Maria Teresa ParpaglioloShephard》,《帝国时代花园的文化历史》,《女性、现代性和风景园林》,《绿化城市:20世纪的城市景观》,她目前正在撰写的专著是《城市森林和街道绿化的历史》。

Lecture title:Airport–A Cultural Landscape

演讲题目:机场––文化景观

Abstract: This paper will show how throughout the twentieth century the airport has been understood and designed as a cultural landscape and distinct environment. The understanding of airports and aviation in general has been closely intertwined with notions of landscape, environment and ecology, even if the airport has during its evolution been described by various critics, architects, and philosophers as an anti-landscape, as obsolescent, a “non-place,” and dystopia. The paper will contextualize the idea of the airport as landscape within the changing interpretations of the concept of cultural landscape itself, a concept that first became more widely used in the Anglo-American world precisely during the years of the birth of powered flight. The paper will reveal how the recognition of the airport as both a cultural landscape and a vulnerable environment has led to and resulted from site-specific airport landscape designs, wildlife management practices, the inclusion of historic sites into airport designs, and the conservation of runways and other features for the adaptive reuse of decommissioned airports. While many designers conceived of airports as new iconic techno-cultural landscapes, others perceived them as destructive to the already existing cultural landscapes. The meanings of the airport as cultural landscape are therefore also always closely related to the social, and economic politics surrounding it.

摘要:将介绍整个二十世纪机场如何被作为一个文化景观和独特的环境被理解和设计的。虽然机场在其演化过程中被各种批评家、建筑师和哲学家描述为是一种反景观,一处过时的“非场所”和反乌托邦,但总体上对机场和航空的理解已经与景观,环境,生态的概念紧密地交织在一起。将从不断变化的文化景观概念范围内解析历史情境下机场作为景观的理念,文化景观在动力飞行诞生的这些年间,首次在英美世界被更加广泛的应用。本文将揭示如何认知机场既作为为文化景观,也是脆弱环境的过程,这一过程产生了作为特定场地的机场景观设计,野生动物的管理实践,介入到历史遗迹的机场设计,跑道的保护和其他废弃机场适应性再利用的特点。虽然许多设计师构思机场为全新的标志性技术 - 文化景观,其他人认为它们的建设破坏了场地原有的文化景观。机场作为文化景观的含义也因此总是与其周围的社会,经济和政治密切相关。

 

2国内嘉宾:

01.苏雪痕

 

曾任北京林业大学园林系系主任、园林植物学科带头人,国务院学位委员会林科组成员、中国风景园林学会花卉盆景分会副理事长。1994年获政府特殊津贴。1989年以来一直任世界盆栽友好联盟中国理事,中国森林风景资源评价委员会委员、北京园林学会常务理事、林业花卉协会常务理事、中国林学会城市森林分会常务理事。

演讲题目:深化植物景观设计研究

02.杜春兰

 

重庆大学建筑城规学院院长,教授,博士生导师,重庆大学风景园林学科的学术带头人。长期致力于景观规划与设计、风景园林资源保护与生态修复、城市设计与旅游规划、园林历史与当代景观理论研究。

演讲题目:当代语境下的巴渝地区传统园林景观价值研究

Abstract: In the influence of special geographic environment and cultural background, traditional landscape in Bayu area has formed a relatively complete system over a long period of development. In the contemporary context, it is of great academic value and social value to conduct research on Bayu traditional landscape. In academic value: the previous studies focused on the northern royal gardens and private garden, while the present study aims at revealing the formation mechanism of Bayu traditional landscape and rebuilding its gene sequence, which is an important complement to Chinese traditional landscape systems. In social value: although the Three Gorges Resettlement Project has completed for nearly six years, in the research process we found that many immigrants just seem to settled down, but their sense of belonging and well-being has not been really satisfied, whose homeland complex is serious. This study from the perspective of the traditional landscape ameliorates the mental health of migrants, improves their quality of life and has great significance to promote social stability and development.

摘要:在特殊的地理环境和文化背景影响下,巴渝地区传统园林景观经过长期发展已形成较为完整的体系。在当代语境下,对巴渝传统园林景观开展研究具有重要的学术价值和社会价值。学术价值方面:以往研究主要关注点在于北方皇家园林和江南私家园林,而本研究旨在揭示巴渝传统园林景观形成机理,重建其基因序列,是对中国传统园林景观系统的完善和重要补充;社会价值方面:尽管三峡移民工程已完成近6年,调研过程中我们发现,许多移民仅仅是表面上安定了下来,其归属感和幸福感并未得到真正满足,“原乡情结”严重。本研究将从传统园林景观角度出发,改善库区移民心理状况、提升移民生活质量,对促进社会稳定发展具有重要意义。

 

03.林箐

 

北京林业大学园林学院教授,博士生导师,研究领域包括园林历史,现代景观设计理论,区域景观,乡村景观等,发表大量相关论文和著作;同时从事领域广泛的规划设计实践,作品获得包括美国ASLA规划奖、IFLA APR设计奖、英国BALI景观奖以及中国风景园林学会规划设计奖等一系列奖项。

演讲题目:乡村景观的价值与可持续发展途径

Abstract:Rural landscape is the product of interactions between human and nature. It shows the most direct and fundamental connection between human and natural environment. It also shows the unique natural conditions and cultural history of a region. In the past 30 years, China’s rural landscape has changed in a staggering speed, and some traditional rural landscapes which are considered to be of high cultural and aesthetic value are rapidly disappearing. These phenomena reflect the problems and threats that faced by the countryside.  The sustainable development of the rural landscape depends on the environmental, economic and social sustainable, as well as the sustainable architecture and landscape. As landscape architects, we should be familiar with the history and features of rural landscapes in different regions, understand the relationships between human and nature implied by the rural landscape, and be conscious of the complexity of rural society and economy. This is the basis for the protection of rural landscapes and the implementation of construction activities in rural regions.

摘要:乡村景观是人与自然相互作用的产物,展示了人类与自然环境的最直接和最根本的联系,展现了一个地区独特的自然条件和文化历史。过去的30年,中国乡村景观的变化速度惊人,一些具有较高文化价值和美学价值的传统乡村景观正在快速地消失,这一现象反映了乡村所面临的诸多问题和威胁。乡村景观的可持续发展应当建立在环境、经济、社会、建筑和景观的可持续之上。深入了解不同地区乡村景观的历史和特征,充分理解乡村景观所蕴含的人与自然的关系,深刻认识乡村社会和经济的复杂性,是风景园林师从事乡村景观保护与乡村地区的建设活动的基础。

 

 

04.韩锋

 

同济大学建筑与城市规划学院景观学系系主任,澳大利亚昆士兰科技大学风景建筑学博士。国际古迹遗址理事会文化景观委员会专家、中国委员;国际景观建筑师联盟文化景观委员亚太指导委员会委员,ICOMOS-IFLA国际科学委员会委员。

演讲题目:景观的本质与价值多样性

Abstract: Deeply rooted in nature, landscape deals with human-nature interaction through landscape maintain and construction. Landscape is a historical text record of human spiritual cognition and social construction of nature, the wisdom of surviving in nature and living with nature, and the management of and contribution to biodiversity. Landscape is the representation of a view of nation. It reflects global diversity ofbeliefs, wisdom, knowledge, and emotions inspired by nature of ethnic groups. Landscape is a treasured heritage of combined work of humans and nature and manifestation of human civilization and culture.

摘要:景观深深根植于自然。景观的本质是人与自然长期而深刻的相互作用的产物。景观是人类对自然的精神认知和社会建构、对自然的智慧生存和生活利用、对自然生物多样性管理和贡献的完整记录文本。景观蕴含着各文化族群的自然观,展示了他们对自然的信仰、智慧、知识和情感,以及对理想生活的追求。景观是全人类遗产价值,是人类文明和文化的见证。

 

05.但文红

 

贵州师范大学教授。地理学博士,自1994年以来,长期从事乡村地理研究,专注苗侗村落文化景观研究与保护

演讲题目:苗侗村落文化景观整体性的技术与文化支撑体系

Abstract: the integral mountainous village farming cultural landscapes retained in Miao & Dong villages in western China demonstrates the interaction relations of tradition agriculture technology, culture system and nature endowed possibility. The construction of technical system and traditional cultivation utilized the local natural resources such as mountains, waters, forests, lands, stones rationally, and formed a total natural idyllic scene of settlements and the surroundings such as terraces, forests, roads and channel systems. The Miao & Dong village culture which rooted from traditional technology system formed complete set of traditional value system of man-nature, man-man and man-village. The two jointly maintain the integrity of the Miao & Dong village cultural landscapes. With the introduction of the new agricultural technology system and impact of foreign materialistic culture, the village culture landscapes' integrity is undergoing two serious threats: 1) the single landscape element protection may destruct the integrity of landscape, such as the visual landscape protection of terrace, architecture, dance, clothing, etc.; 2) Applying man-made landscape system to replace the traditional village landscape nodes in the name of modernization, and the "urban residential area landscape" spreading in the rural areas would destroy the integrity and coordination of village cultural landscape.

摘要:中国西部苗族和侗族聚居区保留着完整的山地村落农耕文化景观,充分展示了传统农业技术和文化系统与自然赋予的可能性的相互作用关系。源于传统的耕作和建造技术体系,合理利用了当地山、水、林、土、石等自然资源,形成了聚落与周边的梯田、森林、道路和渠道系统浑然天成的田园画卷。根植于传统技术体系的苗侗村落文化,形成了一整套人与自然、人与人、人与村落的传统价值体系,二者共同维持苗侗村落文化景观的整体性。随着新农业技术体系引入和外来物欲文化价值的影响,村落文化景观的整体性正面临两种严重威胁:一是单景观要素保护对景观整体性的破坏,如梯田、建筑、歌舞、服饰等具有视觉效果景观的保护;二是以现代化之名,用城市人造景观系统替代传统村落景观节点,形成“城市小区景观”在乡村恣意铺开的现象,破坏了村落文化景观整体性和协调性。

 

06.刘晖

 

西安建筑科技大学学院教授,风景园林系主任,学科带头人,西北地景研究所所长,主要从事风景园林专业教育,以及中国传统地景文化历史与理论、西北脆弱生态环境下的景观规划设计理论与方法、历史遗址环境中的城市景观研究(西安城市形态演进)三个学术方向的科研工作。

演讲题目:寻找西北风景园林学的站点

Abstract:The construction of northwest Landscape has a long history and rich cultural heritage landscape, it is significant useful to explore the Chinese traditional landscape culture of Chinese civilization system in the Yellow River Basin, to reveal the landscape resourcevalue of the flourishing literary and Silk Road culture. Nowadays,the Northwest landscape architecture is looking for the position of historical development; Northwest natural landscape is diverse, ecological environment is unique and fragile, ecological matrixesof urbanization development carry and reflect human settlements and ecological improvement.We should explore anorganic ease construction mode, which is proper for ecological matrixes space. Nowadays,the subject of Northwest landscape is to find the positionof man and nature evolution process. With the geographic coordinates of the space station, we need the reflection and direction in investigations, exploringthe positionof northwest landscape architecture to connect the history and future.

摘要:西北地区风景营建历史久远且文化景观遗存丰厚,探索黄河流域华夏文明体系中中国地景文化理论思想,揭示盛世和丝路文化景观资源价值。今天的西北风景园林学科寻找历史发展脉络中的站点;西北地区自然景观多样、独特而生态环境脆弱,城镇化发展的生态基质是承载和反映人居建设和生态改善的双重载体,探索符合承载空间生态基质秩序的有机疏解建设模式,今天的西北风景园林学科寻找人与自然关系演变过程中的站点。地理坐标中的空间站点,东张西望中的反思与定位,探索西北风景园林学的站点,连接历史和未来。